Explosions from Sun to disturb space weather in 2024

Researchers at IISER Kolkata discovered a link between the Sun's magnetic field and its sunspot cycle, creating a tool to predict the peak of solar activity in 2024.

Published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, the research indicates that the peak of solar cycle 25 is expected within the next year.

The Sun, our nearest star, is a dynamic ball of plasma with powerful magnetic fields that sometimes appear on its surface as sunspots. 

These spots are not just marks; they are areas of intense magnetic activity, surpassing Earth's magnetic field by 10,000 times.

Disrupted magnetic fields on the Sun can lead to solar storms, causing flares and coronal mass ejections. These events release powerful radiation and streams of magnetized plasma into space.

Sunspot numbers historically fluctuate in an approximately 11-year cycle, with peaks indicating increased solar activity and a higher potential for disruptive space weather.

Studying historical solar data affirms the Waldmeier effect and underscores the essential role of sunspots in the solar dynamo mechanism.

Researchers Priyansh Jaswal, Chitradeep Saha, and Dibyendu Nandy demonstrated that combining observations of the Sun's dipole field decay with sunspot data can predict the peak of the current cycle.

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